Microsoft
Founded April 4, 1975
Founder Bill Gates
Paul Allen
Location Redmond, Washington, U.S.

Microsoft, a portmanteau of “microcomputer” and “software”, is a computer company that was founded in Albuquerque, New Mexico on April 4, 1975.
They are most well known for Windows, their operating system with a graphical user interface. Windows was first released on November 20, 1985, and has become the most widely used operating system on the IBM PC compatible architecture.

Prior to Windows, they developed MS-DOS, the Microsoft Disk Operating System, which was first released in August 1981 after Microsoft purchased 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products. 86-DOS gained its name from the fact it was developed for SCP's computer kit that used the Intel 8086 processor. It was originally known as Q-DOS, which stood for the Quick and Dirty Operating System, and became 86-DOS after SCP began licensing it in 1980. Consumer versions of Microsoft Windows actually ran on top of MS-DOS until the release of Windows XP in 2000, when Microsoft began using their Windows NT for Networks operating system core in their consumer versions as well.

The MSX computer standard was announced on June 16, 1983 by Microsoft Japan, as an attempt to create unified standards among computer manufacturers of the time. Many Japanese companies, such as Sony, Yamaha, Canon, and Sharp, released computers that adhered to the MSX standard. Despite Microsoft's involvement, MSX computers were mainly sold in Japan and Europe, with few manufacturers releasing MSX computers in North America.

On November 15, 2001, Microsoft released their first video game console, the Xbox. It was a risk, as the other major console manufacturers at the time had already established a fanbase with their previous consoles. The Xbox did not sell well in Japan, but in most of the rest of the world it was the second best selling console of its generation, behind the Sony PlayStation 2. This was partly helped by the poor performance of the Nintendo GameCube outside of Japan. The success of the Xbox was also helped in part by the discontinuation of the Sega Dreamcast in regions outside of Japan in 2002, and Sega's subsequent decision to depart from the video game hardware industry to focus on game development.

On November 22, 2005, Microsoft released the follow-up to the Xbox, the Xbox 360. The Nintendo Wii, with its motion-sensing controller, was a surprise success. Sony mimicked Nintendo with their own motion controller, the PlayStation Move, however Microsoft went in a different direction, releasing a motion sensing camera, the Kinect. This replaced the Xbox Vision Camera, which was a basic camera which was mostly designed for video chat and taking pictures. There were some games that were released for the Xbox Vision Camera that used basic body sensing, but the Kinect was much more robust. It supported up to four players in the camera's view at one time, and sensed their body structure, giving each player a virtual skeleton, which would detect the movement of each individual body part. There were limitations to this, as dark hair or dark skin would often not be properly tracked, leading to the affected part of the body appearing invisible on screen.
On November 22, 2013, Microsoft released the Xbox One, the follow-up to the Xbox 360, which competed with the Sony PlayStation 4. The decision to call the third iteration of the Xbox the “One” comes from the fact that it is meant to be a singular device that operates everything in an entertainment center, from games, to music and movies.

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